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Ventral discectomy with the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis: single-level and with pmma inrbody fusion for cervical disc disease: long- bi-level purchase 25mg nizagara otc. Neck pain: Cervicothoracic radiculopathy tread using posrior cer- a long-rm follow-up of 205 patients nizagara 25 mg generic. An- posrior cervical foraminotomy for treatmenof cer- rior cervical discectomy with or withoufusion with ray vical spondylitic radiculopathy purchase cheapest nizagara and nizagara. Herniad cervical inrverbral discs sis - Compurized Tomographic Myelography Diagnosis buy nizagara 25mg visa. Abnormal myelograms in the fourth cervical root: an analysis of 12 surgically tread asymptomatic patients. Toward a biochemical understanding of foraminotomy: an efective treatmenfor cervical spon- human inrverbral disc degeneration and herniation. Physical examination signs, clinical symp- surgical Approach for Degenerative Cervical Disk Disease. Change methacryla inrbody stabilization for cervical sofdisc of cervical balance following single to multi-level inr- disease: results in 292 patients with monoradiculopathy. Reduced ing in surgical managemenof cervical disc disease, spon- pain afr surgery for cervical disc protrusion/sno- dylosis and spondylotic myelopathy. Clinical and radiographic analysis of cervical tance of scapular winging in clinical diagnosis. J Neurol disc arthroplasty compared with allograffusion: a ran- Neurosurg Psychiatry. Jun 2002;144(6):539- dicad in the presence of cervical spinal cord compres- 549; discussion 550. Results of the cal decompression withoufusion: a long-rm follow-up prospective, randomized, controlled multicenr Food study. Cosadvantages ing Pro-Disc C versus fusion: a prospective randomised of two-level anrior cervical fusion with rigid inrnal and controlled radiographic and clinical study. Anrior cervical discec- thesis - Clinical and radiological experience 1 year afr tomy and fusion: analysis of surgical outcome with and surgery. Neuhold A, Stiskal M, Platzer C, Pernecky G, Brainin physical function in patients with chronic radicular neck M. A comparison between patients tread with surgery, imaging in cervical disk disease. Comparison with my- physiotherapy or neck collar--a blinded, prospective ran- elography and intraoperative fndings. Atypical presentation of C-7 ra- vical arthroplasty outcomes versus single-level out- diculopathy. Cervical radiculopathy: a case for and anrior cervical discectomy and husion using the ancillary therapies? Pechlivanis I, Brenke C, Scholz M, EngelhardM, Harders agement, and outcome afr anrior decompressive op- A, Schmieder K. Medicinal based study from Rochesr, Minnesota, 1976 through and injection therapies for mechanical neck disorders. Neck pain, cervical radiculopathy, and cervical my- Tis clinical guideline should nobe construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding other acceptable methods of care reasonably direcd to obtaining the same results. Oc2002;84-A(10):1872- of provocative sts of the neck for diagnosing cervical ra- 1881. A new full-endo- myelopathy: pathophysiology, natural history, and clini- scopic chnique for cervical posrior foraminotomy in cal evaluation. Jan ences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a mag- 2001;55(1):17-22; discussion 22. Assessmenof extradural degenerative disease opathy: assessmenof feasibility and surgical chnique. Use of discectomy and inrbody fusion by endoscopic approach: the Solis cage and local autologous bone graffor anrior a preliminary report. Asymptomatic rior cervical fusions afr cervical discectomy for radicu- degenerative disk disease and spondylosis of the cervical lopathy or myelopathy. Symptom provocation of fuoroscopically mineralized bone matrix: results of 3-year follow-up. Cervical nerve rooblocks: indications and role of analysis of patients receiving single-level fusions. Diagnostic imaging algorithm rior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium cylin- for cervical sofdisc herniation. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the clinical 2007;61(1):107-116; discussion 116-107. Herniation - Comparison of Cand 3dfGradiencho Mr Increased fusion ras with cervical plating for two-lev- Scans. Cervical spine degenerative changes Mar 15 2001;26(6):643-646; discussion 646-647. Outcome scores in degen- ity to two-level anrior fusion in the cervical spine: a erative cervical disc surgery. The frsdition was published in April 2001 under the same title (numbered Green-top Guideline No. Thromboprophylaxis during pregnancy and the puerperium is addressed in Green-top Guideline No. This may recommend the involvemenof obstricians, radiologists, physicians and haematologists. B If ultrasound is negative and there is a low level of clinical suspicion, anticoagulantreatmencan C be discontinued. Before anticoagulantherapy is commenced, blood should be taken for a full blood count, D coagulation screen, urea and electrolys, and liver function sts. Collapsed, shocked women who are pregnanor in the puerperium should be assessed by a am P of experienced clinicians including the on-call consultanobstrician. Managemenshould involve a multidisciplinary am including senior physicians, obstricians and radiologists. Pregnanwomen who develop heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or have heparin allergy and C require continuing anticoagulantherapy should be managed with an alrnative anticoagulanunder specialisadvice. Therapeutic anticoagulantherapy should be continued for the duration of the pregnancy and for aC leas6 weeks postnatally and until aleas3 months of treatmenhas been given in total. Purpose and scope The aim of this guideline is to provide information, based on clinical evidence where available, regarding the immedia investigation and managemenof women in whom venous thromboembolism is suspecd during pregnancy or the puerperium. Conference abstracts published during this period thahave since been superseded by full papers have been cid as the latr, even when these were published outside the search das. The principal rms used were: �venous thromboembolism�, �deep venous thrombosis�, �pulmonary thromboembolism� and �pregnancy�. This may recommend the involvemenof obstricians, radiologists, physicians P and haematologists. If ultrasound is negative and a high level of clinical suspicion exists, anticoagulantreatmenshould be discontinued buthe ultrasound should be repead on days 3 and 7. The sensitivity of serial compression ultrasonography with Doppler imaging was 94. With Evidence regard to V/Q lung scanning, during pregnancy the ventilation componencan ofn be omitd level 2+ thereby minimising the radiation dose for the fetus. The radiation dose depends on breassize, the chnique used and the age of the woman � the risk of cancer being grear in younger women. The delivery of 10 mGy of radiation to a woman�s breashas been estimad to increase her lifetime risk of developing breascancer by 13. For a 25-year-old whose background Evidence risk of developing breascancer in the following 10 years is 0. Furthermore, Allen and Demetriades48 have suggesd thaven this small risk is an overestima. Nevertheless, breastissue is especially sensitive to radiation exposure during pregnancy because of hormonally induced increased glandular activity. In each of these studies, the authors conclude thaprospective trials are required to valida their fndings. Baseline blood investigations Whabaseline blood investigations should be performed before initiating anticoagulantherapy? Before anticoagulantherapy is commenced, blood should be taken for a full blood count, coagulation D screen, urea and electrolys, and liver function sts. B The use of anticoagulantherapy can be infuenced by renal and hepatic function, and can Evidence infuence the plalecount, and blood should be taken to confrm thathese are normal level 4 before commencing treatment. Levels level 1++ of antithrombin and proin C may fall, particularly if the thrombus is exnsive.

We also believe that responsible prescription of opioids should not be inhibited by fear of criminal prosecution or regulatory action 25mg nizagara with visa. Physicians Should Be Sensitive To And Seek To Minimize The Risks Of Addiction order nizagara 100 mg amex, Respiratory Depression And Other Adverse Effects order genuine nizagara, Tolerance cheap nizagara 25mg without prescription, And Diversion. Addiction: Addiction is a neurobiological, compulsive disorder in which an individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining and using a substance-- and experiences a lack of control over using that substance -- despite continued use that results in a decreased quality of life and significant adverse consequences. Addiction is a serious problem that should be considered as a possibility in all patients receiving opioids. However, misunderstanding of addiction and mislabeling of patients as addicts may result in unnecessary withholding of opioid medications. In all cases, the physician must balance the possibility of addiction against the benefits of the therapy – striving always to reduce the risk of the former. In some cases, however, treatment by an addiction medicine specialist may be indicated. While respiratory depression can occur with patients taking opioids, this risk can generally be minimized if certain precautions are followed. For instance, concomitant use of other neuro-depressive drugs, such as benzodiazepines and alcohol, should be viewed with great caution, since the combination of these drugs has been shown to increase the risk of serious adverse events. In addition, caution with dosing and titrations is indicated for patients with underlying diagnoses such as sleep apnea or end-stage respiratory disease due to the increased risk of cardio-respiratory events. Finally, patients do not develop complete tolerance to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids and the risk of respiratory depression increases as dose increases, regardless of how long one is on opioids. Tolerance: It was previously thought that the development of analgesic tolerance limited the ability to use opioids effectively on a long-term basis for pain management. Tolerance, or decreasing pain relief with the same dosage over time, has not proven to be a significant impediment to long-term opioid use. Experience with treating cancer pain has shown that what initially appears to be tolerance is usually progression of the disease. In the noncancer patient, the failure to respond to increasing doses of opioids should be evaluated very carefully. The possibilities include tolerance, disease progression, non-opioid responsive pain syndromes, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Diversion: Diversion of controlled substances should be a concern of every health professional. Attention to patterns of prescription requests and the prescribing of opioids as part of an ongoing relationship between a patient and a healthcare provider can decrease the risk of diversion. Urine and/or blood drug screening, frequent follow up and patient contact, and pill counts are some commonly used clinical interventions that may be helpful in ruling out the issue of diversion. Periodic review of state prescription monitoring program databases, where available, is also a useful tool to monitor compliance and adequacy of communication. Opioids Should Be Prescribed Only After A Thorough Evaluation Of The Patient, Consideration Of Alternatives, Development Of A Treatment Plan Tailored To The Needs Of The Patient And Minimization of Adverse Effects, And On-Going Monitoring And Documentation. Evaluation of the patient: Evaluation should initially include a pain history and assessment of the impact of pain on the patient, a directed physical examination, a review of previous diagnostic studies, a review of previous treatments, a drug history, and an assessment of coexisting diseases or conditions. Treatment plan: Treatment planning should be tailored to both the individual and the presenting problem. Consideration should be given to different treatment modalities, such as an 3 © 2013 American Academy of Pain Medicine - Approved February 2013 interventional approach, a formal pain rehabilitation program, the use of physical medicine and psychological and behavioral strategies, or the use of medications, depending upon the physical and psychosocial impairment related to the pain. Opioids should be prescribed only if the physician reasonably concludes that other treatment modalities will be inadequate to address the patient’s pain. A trial of opioids implies setting expectations that the medications will be prescribed for a short period of time. Continued use will be contingent upon demonstrated improvement in analgesia, physical function and quality of life – and absence of significant adverse events and maladaptive behaviors. Consultation as needed: Consultation with a Pain Medicine or other specialist may be warranted, depending on the expertise of the practitioner and the complexity of the presenting problem. The management of pain in patients with a history of addiction or a comorbid psychiatric disorder requires special consideration. Periodic review of treatment efficacy: Review of treatment efficacy should occur frequently to assess the functional status of the patient, continued analgesia, adverse effects, quality of life, and indications of medication misuse. Monitoring of compliance is a critical aspect of chronic opioid prescribing, using such tools as random urine drug screening, pill counts, and where available, review of prescription monitoring data base reports. Close follow-up and reexamination is warranted to assess the nature of the pain complaint and to ensure that opioid therapy is still indicated. Attention should be given to the possibility of a decrease in global function or quality of life as a result of opioid use. Documentation: Documentation is essential for supporting the evaluation, the reason for opioid prescribing, the overall pain management treatment plan, any consultations received, and periodic review of the status of the patient. Keywords Abstract diagnosis; drug allergy; drug Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitiv- hypersensitivity; intradermal test; skin test. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise Correspondence information on specific test concentrations. Knut Brockow, Department of based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitiv- Dermatology and Allergology Biederstein, ity. To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirri- Technische Universitat Munchen,€ € tant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and Biedersteiner Str. Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature search on skin test drug con- Tel. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration Accepted for publication 7 February 2013 the collective experience of the group. We recommend drug concentration for skin testing aiming to achieve a specificity of at least 95%. For many other drugs, Edited by: Hans-Uwe Simon there is insufficient evidence to recommend appropriate drug concentration. Skin test concentrations for drugs is urgent need for multicentre studies designed to establish and validate drug skin test concentration using standard protocols. For most drugs, sensitivity of skin testing is higher in immediate hypersensitivity compared to nonimmediate hyper- sensitivity. Additional articles patients and is associated with significant morbidity and were found through archives or on the reference lists of the mortality (1). Further data sources were textbooks, test specific immune mechanisms are classified as drug allergy. The mecha- We restricted the search to systemically administered drugs nism underlying the former is thought to be IgE-mediated and excluded topically applied agents causing only contact or and the latter is primarily T cell-mediated. In drug allergy, skin testing is the most the group, when other reliable data were lacking. The litera- widely used method to determine sensitization, as other tests ture reviewed contained minimal data on testing of healthy (in vitro or drug provocation test) are less specific, less sensi- controls. There is no international con- sensus on how skin tests with drugs should be performed or Data extraction interpreted. There have been no multicentre studies to estab- lish drug concentration, test protocol, specificity, sensitivity Our aim has been to provide data for all widely used drugs and safety. Members of the task force were assigned centrations for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity are not different drug classes (Appendix 1) who retrieved identified available for most drugs (3). The relevance of articles was not investigate drug reactions and rely on the history alone evaluated by the responsible authors on the basis of title to make a diagnosis of drug allergy and the unjustified use/ and abstract. For drug groups provocation tests (5), as well as recommendations for the where evidence was considered sufficient for recommenda- management of betalactam hypersensitivity (6), perioperative tions to be made on skin concentrations, tables are included anaphylaxis (7), radiocontrast media reactions (8), hypersen- in the following text (Tables 1–3). It is the primary purpose of this paper to present skin test The submission of the responsible author(s) was discussed concentrations for practical use by the allergist. Suggested by the task force, confirmed or amended by consensus of concentrations should be nonirritating aiming for the highest the group. By evaluating the liter- ature, we developed additional key statements and recom- mendations concerning methodology and clinical value of skin testing for various drug classes. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd 703 Skin test concentrations for drugs Brockow et al. These tend to occur within 1 h after drug administra- recommendation for key statements and skin test concentra- tion, but may develop after 1–6 h (and exceptionally later). Evidence was graded as high quality, if further oedema and may progress in some cases to more severe research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the symptoms of bronchospasm, hypotension and anaphylactic estimate of effect; moderate, if further research is likely to shock. Nonimmediate hypersensi- of effect and may change the estimate; low, if further tivity reactions develop within hours to days but in highly research is very likely to have an important impact on our sensitized individuals may manifest within 24 h. A validated protocol should be used, and guidelines have A recommendation is weak if the benefits and risks are been published (high/strong) (2, 12).

Activities are the most obvious aspect of treatment because they are the part that can easily be described by an observer with little knowledge of the intervention generic nizagara 25mg. Lay observers purchase online nizagara, and at times even beginning clinicians purchase nizagara 100mg with mastercard, can sometimes confuse an activity with an intervention as a whole nizagara 25 mg for sale. That is, the observer recognizes the activity but fails to take note of the procedural steps taken by the interventionist. Selecting or creating the appropriate activity, however, requires considerable skill. It is not easy to create activities that are meaningful and motivating for the child yet provide many opportunities for the application of intervention procedures directed toward specific goals. In fact, successful activity planning requires attention to many other elements of intervention, including the goals of the intervention (at all levels), the assumed mechanism by which learning will take place most efficiently, and the availability of particular agents and materials. Dosage According to Warren, Fey, and Yoder (2007), language intervention dosage relates to dose, or the amount of time the intervention procedures are applied at a single setting Excerpted from Treatment of Language Disorders in Children, Second Edition by Rebecca J. Because group interventions necessarily reduce the number of teacher episodes that are possible in an individual session, we also view consideration of service delivery individually or in groups as a dosage issue. As a topic in communication disorders, an interest in the role of dosage has grown dramatically over the past few decades (e. Anyone who has pursued the acquisition of an unfamiliar skill as an adult, such as playing the piano or learning to golf, has probably developed the suspicion that, at least in general, more attempts at learning result in “better” learning than do fewer efforts: Practice makes perfect, after all. There is a broad literature indicating that learning based on trials that are spaced over time is better, in the sense of more lasting and more likely to generalize, than learning that occurs with massed trials (e. However, although dosage differences have been raised as an explanation for the better results of some treatment approaches over others (Kamhi, 1999; Law & Conti-Ramsden, 2000), there has been very limited systematic study of this aspect of treatment among children with language disorders (see Chapters 3, 5, and 15 for some exceptions and for some evidence that more is not always better). In clinical practice, scheduling the frequency of treatment sessions is often guided by no stronger a principle than the notion that children with more severe impairments are generally seen more frequently than those with less severe impairments (Brandel & Loeb, 2011). Still, clinicians who use the results of published studies to support their intervention choices must attend closely to dosage. They should be concerned when- ever they choose or are forced to select a treatment intensity that differs significantly from that used in published research reports (as is often the case). Intervention Agents Intervention agents are typically individuals who interact with the child for the pur- pose of realizing treatment goals. Intervention Context(s) Contexts are the social and physical environments in which interventions take place. Contexts in which interventions are carried out may be selected on theoretical grounds because of their functional value to the child (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998) or because of increased Excerpted from Treatment of Language Disorders in Children, Second Edition by Rebecca J. Contexts are often se- lected on practical grounds; for example, participation by parents is often feasible only in some settings, such as the child’s home. When the context is forced by such circum- stances, there are often ramifications in other components of intervention. For exam- ple, it may be possible to utilize certain procedures, such as recasts (Chapter 5), within the typical classroom setting or when children are working in small in-class groups. It may not be possible, however, to implement certain procedures, such as imitative drill or observational modeling, in a discreet manner within the classroom setting. Comprehensive Assessment of the Intervention Within the structural model of intervention described thus far, the child’s achievement of subgoals represents an integrated and handy method by which the effects of the inter- vention can begin to be gauged for an individual child. In general, performance-related goals that are more specific and represented more to the right in Figure 1. Because subgoals are so highly particular to specific procedures and outcomes, progress on subgoals may or may not lead to predictable achievement on the higher level goals that prompted intervention in the first place (Fey & Cleave, 1990). Because the intent of intervention is to effect positive change in a child’s life, it is important to determine whether goals that are relatively less abstract and less func- tional (e. Attainment of basic goals should ultimately lead to meaningful changes in the child’s life, and those changes should be (and increasingly are) carefully measured (Bain & Dollaghan, 1991; Bothe & Richardson, 2011; Kazdin, 2001; McCauley, 2001). These include professions such as psychology, social work, physical and occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Although not without its detractors and controversies about how it should be realized “on the ground” (Roulstone, 2011), we feel confident that it can help readers make use of this book. Steps involved in an evidence-based practice approach to treatment selection Step 1. Integrating research evidence with client- and clinician-specific information and values to make and implement the treatment selection decision Step 5. First, Steps 1 and 4 require clinicians to carefully consider both the individual child and the child’s family, as well as their interests, desires, and values in making decisions regarding intervention options. Clinicians must also consider their own experience, expertise, and preferences in the decision-making process. Nonetheless, books can still retain value in providing information about more basic concepts, in introducing specific skills with a presumed longer shelf life, and in providing a his- toric context for a broad area of study. In addition, they can provide a more detailed account of theoretical underpinnings and clinical procedures than is often possible in other types of publications. All of these potential advantages of textbook descrip- tions of child language interventions can be found in the chapters represented in this volume. Furthermore, despite their strong negative views on traditional textbooks, Sackett and his colleagues acknowledged that some textbooks are organized with an eye toward clinical use and that much of the information they contain will actually be current because newer, contradictory information has not yet appeared. To min- imize their potential weaknesses, however, Sackett and colleagues recommended that textbooks be revised frequently, be heavily referenced with regard to clinical recommendations so that outdated information can be more readily spotted, and be constructed with an eye to explicit principles of evidence. Although a 10-year sepa- ration between the first and second editions of this volume means we may not have fully lived up to Sackett and his colleagues’ first piece of advice, we have made our best efforts to adhere to the remainder. The present volume has been constructed as much as possible to approach the ideals mapped out by Sackett and colleagues (2000). For example, numerous refer- ences are provided to establish the time frame of particular ideas and pieces of infor- mation. Through the use of the standard template described previously in this chap- ter, authors were encouraged to discuss the quality of the evidence they provided Excerpted from Treatment of Language Disorders in Children, Second Edition by Rebecca J. Nonetheless, all readers are cautioned that this volume is more likely to remain a useful resource for a reasonable period of time if viewed as a preliminary, rather than exhaustive, source of information and if its chapters are recognized as narrative reviews written by advocates of the approaches they describe rather than as systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or practice guidelines. Since the first edition of this book, not only has evidence-based practice be- come a term that is familiar to almost all clinicians, its wholehearted adoption by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has led to the development of many informational resources designed to ease access to sources of research evidence. Although an exhaustive list of such resources is beyond the scope of this chapter and might be overwhelming to the point of diminishing value in any case, Table 1. Available information on client/patient/caregiver perspectives and clinical expertise/expert opinion are also provided for each disorder category. First, consider the information in the Target Populations and the Empirical Basis sections of each chapter as an initial, possibly biased, and al- most certainly nonexhaustive survey of the available research literature. Second, from this skeptical perspective, determine whether evidence presented in these same sections is applicable to a specific child you are considering as a potential candidate for the treatment. If it is not, is there any theoretical reason that would make the intervention more or less effective with the target child? Third, based on the information in the Practical Requirements, Key Components, and Application to an Individual Child sections and from an examination of the video clips, is the approach feasible for the target child under existing circumstances? Do you have the resources to implement the approach at an intensity level close enough to that observed in studies cited to make a successful outcome likely? Fourth, identify at least one of the articles used by the authors as strong support for the methods they describe and critically examine the original research report. Does the evidence pre- sented in the research report support a decision to attempt the technique with the target child in the manner and to the degree anticipated based on the conclusions of the chapter authors? Fifth, do an additional computer-based search for at least one article that is more recent than the literature cited in the article and potentially relevant for the target child. Are the results of this study consistent with a decision to use the approach or to try some alternative? At a minimum, the clinician should address each of the following questions as part of this critical evaluation: 1) Does the research report include chil- dren like the one being considered for treatment? This could include multiple baselines for treated and untreated goals in single-subject experiments, or the use of a control group in a group design. For students who are interested in learning about interventions for children with language disorders, we have one overriding recommendation. We urge them to adopt the perspective described previously for practicing clinicians, anticipating that al- though they may not have their own clients yet, they soon will have. We recognize that learning in the abstract about treatment theory, evidence, and structure is a daunting and less rewarding task than framing such work in terms of an individual; therefore, we recommend that as much as possible they consider the content they are reading in light of case descriptions provided by their instructors or included in each chapter.

Youth drinking in the United States: Relationships with alcohol policies and adult drinking order nizagara 50 mg without prescription. Evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm buy nizagara online pills. The affordability of alcoholic beverages in the European Union: Understanding the link between alcohol affordability discount nizagara master card, consumption and harms generic 25mg nizagara with mastercard. Effects of alcohol tax and price policies on morbidity and mortality: A systematic review. Drinking, driving, and deterrence: The effectiveness and social costs of alternative policies. Multilevel spatiotemporal change-point models for evaluating the effect of an alcohol outlet control policy on changes in neighborhood assaultive violence rates. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Changes in density of on-premises alcohol outlets and impact on violent crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997– 2007. Multilevel spatio-temporal dual changepoint models for relating alcohol outlet destruction and changes in neighbourhood rates of assaultive violence. Effects of dram shop liability and enhanced overservice law enforcement initiatives on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: Two Community Guide systematic reviews. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Effectiveness of bans and laws in reducing trafc deaths: Legalized Sunday packaged alcohol sales and alcohol-related trafc crashes and crash fatalities in New Mexico. Recommendations on privatization of alcohol retail sales and prevention of excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Changes in trafc crash mortality rates attributed to use of alcohol, or lack of a seat belt, air bag, motorcycle helmet, or bicycle helmet, United States, 1982–2001. New research fndings since the 2007 Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: A review. The impact of underage drinking laws on alcohol‐related fatal crashes of young drivers. Countermeasures that work: A highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices (7th ed. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: A Community Guide systematic review. Impact of state ignition interlock laws on alcohol-involved crash deaths in the United States. Alcohol policies and impaired driving in the United States: Effects of driving-vs. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2014: Volume I, secondary school students (Vol. The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States. Traffic safety facts 2014: A compilation of motor vehicle crash data from the fatality analysis reporting system and the general estimates system. Lowered legal blood alcohol limits for young drivers: Effects on drinking, driving, and driving-after-drinking behaviors in 30 states. Associations between selected state laws and teenagers’ drinking and driving behaviors. Relationships between local enforcement, alcohol availability, drinking norms, and adolescent alcohol use in 50 California cities. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. What we know, and don’t know, about the impact of state policy and systems-level interventions on prescription drug overdose. Effect of Florida’s prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill laws on opioid prescribing and use. Implementation of prescription drug monitoring programs associated with reductions in opioid-related death rates. An evidence based review of acute and long- term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Issues and challenges in the design of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions. Making the case for selective and directed cultural adaptations of evidence‐ based treatments: Examples from parent training. The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fdelity and ft. Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority youths. Adapting school-based substance use prevention curriculum through cultural grounding: A review and exemplar of adaptation processes for rural schools. Using community based participatory research to create a culturally grounded intervention for parents and youth to prevent risky behaviors. Real Men Are Safe–culturally adapted: Utilizing the Delphi process to revise Real Men Are Safe for an ethnically diverse group of men in substance abuse treatment. Effectiveness of a culturally adapted strengthening families program 12–16 years for high-risk Irish families. Adopting a population-level approach to parenting and family support interventions. The prevalence of effective substance use prevention curricula in the Nation’s high schools. Factors associated with fdelity to substance use prevention curriculum guides in the nation’s middle schools. Meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs: Quantitative outcome results of program participants compared to a control or comparison group. Estimating intervention effectiveness: Synthetic projection of feld evaluation results. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Reducing drinking and related harms in college: Evaluation of the “A Matter of Degree” program. Implementation matters: A review of research on the infuence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. A framework for enhancing the value of research for dissemination and implementation. Blueprints for violence prevention: From research to real- world settings—factors infuencing the successful replication of model programs. Toward dissemination of evidence-based family interventions: Maintenance of community-based partnership recruitment results and associated factors. Effects of Communities That Care on the adoption and implementation fdelity of evidence-based prevention programs in communities: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Sustaining the utilization and high quality implementation of tested and effective prevention programs using the Communities That Care prevention system. Sustaining evidence-based prevention programs: Correlates in a large-scale dissemination initiative. National Institutes of Health approaches to dissemination and implementation science: Current and future directions. Strategies for scaling effective family-focused preventive interventions to promote children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral health: Workshop summary. Bridging research and practice: Models for dissemination and implementation research. Planning for the sustainability of community- based health programs: Conceptual frameworks and future directions for research, practice and policy.

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