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By F. Hamlar. Elizabethtown College. 2019.

These machines have undergone frequent changes in design and in capability discount levitra plus express, primarily due to the rapid evolution in computer technology best order for levitra plus. Some severe accidents have occurred with linear accelerators cheap levitra plus 400 mg overnight delivery, primarily due to ‘human error’ purchase levitra plus online, leading to miscalibration of the radiation beam as well as from faulty electronics and/ or errors in computer software. Thus far, 60 Co teletherapy has been limited in the technical capability to rival the much more sophisticated, precisely tailored dose distributions that are now possible with linear accelerators. Unfortunately, this very ‘simple human error’ tragically contributed significantly to the death of ten cancer patients (Fig. Our registry also has reference to several other linear accelerator based radiotherapy accidents, as referred to in Fig. Specifically, there was a series of radiotherapy overexposure accidents, causing severe morbidities in patients in several states and Canada, including two deaths. This is known as the ‘malfunction 54 accident’, which was the result of a software error. This symposium has many papers and posters discussing improvements in the physics aspects of improving radiotherapy safety, so this topic is not further discussed here. However, as in any technical field, accidents do happen; and, when they do, the next best policy is to have plans for attempting to mitigate the medical and psychological injury with appropriate countermeasures. Since management of such radiotherapy accidents, as described in the above examples, is both medically and socially complex — i. Some lessons learned and ideas for prevention and mitigation of the injury from such accidents are discussed. It is essential to make sure that the investigation is justified and that the radiation absorbed dose to the patients as well as to staff members and other individuals involved is kept as low as reasonably achievable. The paper is an introduction to and an overview of the topic of radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine is responsible for a small number of investigations compared, for example, to diagnostic radiology: globally, only 1% of the number of examinations in diagnostic radiology; in Sweden, 2%; in the United States of America, 5%. The contributions to the collective doses are, however, larger: 2, 4 and 26%, respectively [1–3]. Besides bone, thyroid and renal investigations, current clinical applications include the ability to diagnose various types of tumour, neurological disorders (e. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases) and cardiovascular diseases in their initial stages, and to make a non-invasive assessment of therapeutic response. Radioactive tracers are increasingly being used in surgical practices, such as identification of lymph node involvement in breast cancer and colon cancer. It has been a ‘molecular’ science since the beginning, with radionuclides able bind to specific biomolecules. The introduction of hybrid imaging stresses the importance of properly trained personnel and adequate quality control programmes. It highlights the need for education and training of all categories of staff — from referring physicians to technicians, nuclear medicine specialists, medical physicists, engineers and others involved. The overriding principle is that any investigation should offer the maximum benefit to the patient and limit the radiation exposure. These principles have been widely accepted and have been introduced into the legal framework in most countries around the world. In spite of this, there have been many reports of radiological examinations that were not justified [7, 8]. It is evident that the implementation of the justification principle is not satisfactory, neither in nuclear medicine nor in diagnostic radiology, although some very helpful work has been done, for example, by the Royal College of Radiologists in the United Kingdom [9] and by the European Commission [10]. From the radiation protection point of view, it is a real challenge to use such guidelines in daily clinical work. Once clinically justified, each diagnostic examination should be conducted so that the dose to the patient is the lowest necessary to achieve the clinical aim. The optimization process necessarily requires a balance between administered activity, patient radiation dose [11] and image quality. In nuclear medicine, there is an urgent need to define objective criteria of what should be seen in an acceptable image and for systematic observer performance studies of the same type as has been carried out in diagnostic radiology for a decade [12]. Today, the quality of nuclear medicine images is most often assessed through subjective judgements. Diagnostic reference activities should be implemented as a first step to eliminate inappropriate imaging conditions. However, radiopharmaceuticals are occasionally administered to pregnant patients either due to clinical necessity or by mistake. In the first case, the diagnostic test is of high importance for maintaining the health of the mother. In the second case, an embryo or foetus may be irradiated unintentionally because the mother is not aware of her pregnancy, does not wish to admit it, or — against international recommendations [6] — has not been asked whether she is pregnant. Female patients of fertile age should routinely be interviewed and tested for pregnancy before an investigation [13]. As routine pregnancy tests may give misleading results, additional investigations by means of ultrasound could be performed to exclude pregnancy at the time of investigation. It is also necessary to have strict procedures to verify that the patient is not breastfeeding. In Europe, the Medical Exposure Directive 97/43 [17] introduces special attention to the protection of the unborn and breastfed child exposed in medicine. It is necessary to take radiation protection aspects into account already at the design stage of the facility and to install shielding [18]. For the staff, one important source of radiation exposure is handling of radioactive material during its compounding and administration to patients, the need to position the patients for imaging, attending patients who have had radioactive compounds administered to them, and the operation of equipment used. In a study of the doses to fingers and hands, it was shown [20] that training and education in good practice are more relevant parameters for dose reduction than the worker’s experience level. For the lens of the eyes, recent evaluations [21] show threshold doses for induction of cataract, which are ten times lower than deduced from earlier studies. Thus, the yearly equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye at occupational exposure has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv (averaged over 5 years and not more than 50 mSv in any one year) [21]. Personnel involved in nuclear medicine must have good knowledge of radiation protection. With good routines, yearly effective doses to staff members in a nuclear medicine department can be limited to a few millisieverts. Ward nursing staff may also be exposed from patients who need extensive nursing care and this category of staff can also reach effective doses of a few millisieverts per year. For this group, it is especially essential to be provided with information and education in radiation protection. For all groups of staff, it is essential to establish routines which guarantee that doses to pregnant women are such that the dose to an embryo/foetus is kept under 1 mSv [11]. Designing the layout of a facility and appropriate installation of shields are mandatory. The contact time between nurse and patient, and exposed radiation dose of nurses were recorded and assessed. So far, this has been widely conducted through the automatic exposure control mechanism. Good layout of a facility and appropriate installation of shields reduce the radiation dose to staff members. The paper provides some background on how to reduce doses in the field while keeping quality high. As referred to in several peer reviewed papers that were read to get the background on this subject, I found an interesting fact. To incorporate this recommendation into practice, several quality control steps have to be added to the programme. The first step would be to have a physician review the images when the stress portion is complete along with the gated images. A large single-centred study with 16 854 patients and an experienced reader demonstrated this very point [2]. If the camera has a software feature that allows the transmission scan to be moved around in the cardiac programme, effective radiation dose to the patient can be further reduced by only performing one transmission scan, and processing both the stress and rest portions with this same transmission scan. According to DePuey’s article on patient centred imaging, “effective radiation dose using a rest-stress protocol with 10. Again, wherever possible, protocols should be incorporated that allow you to do stress tests only to give the patient the lowest dose achievable.

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It is associated with a good is treated with further chemotherapy or radiotherapy buy levitra plus 400mg low price. There is a higher risk of contralateral which have a variegated appearance due to foci of cancer cheap generic levitra plus canada, but this usually responds well to treatment cheap 400mg levitra plus free shipping. Microscopically buy levitra plus overnight delivery, they ap- pear pleomorphic, with many mitoses and primitive epithelial cells forming irregular sheets, tubules, alve- Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ oliandpapillarystructures. Blood-borne prognostic markers are good, down to 48% for poor metastases are a common early feature. Yolk sac elements are often found with other Leydig cell tumour germ cell tumour elements, when they form solid and papillary lesions which consists of micro-sheets and Definition cordsofcells with vacuolated cytoplasm. These are Thisisanon-germcelltumourofthestromaofthetestis, highly malignant and confer a worse prognosis. Complications Sex Spread occurs via the blood stream to lung, liver, brain Male only andbone. If there is residual tu- mour, with normal markers, surgical resection is in- Clinical features dicated to remove tumour bulk, which often is only Local features as for testicular tumours, but they more mature teratoma. If tumour markers do not respond, commonly present with secondary effects such as gy- second choice chemotherapy is tried. Prognosis Macroscopy/microscopy Apart from higher stage disease, the worst prognosis is in Circumscribed, yellow-brown, uniform tumour which those with very high tumour markers and histologically ranges from 1 cm to a bulky mass. Microscopically, the in those which are undifferentiated, vascular invasive or cellsresemble normal Leydig cells – sheets or nests of if containing trophoblastic or yolk sac elements. Even large, polygonal cells with round nuclei and abundant for metastatic disease modern treatment has improved granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Vacuolated cytoplasm, the 5-year survival rates significantly to over 90% if all or pinkish crystals of Reinke may be seen. The Sertoli cells form the testicular tubules and when stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone from pu- berty, they are capable of supporting the maturation of Sertoli-cell tumour spermatogonia. Normally they do not secrete sex hor- Definition mones, but tumour cells may secrete low levels of andro- This is a non-germ-cell tumour of the testis, derived gens or oestrogens, but these are very rarely high enough from the Sertoli cells which are part of the seminiferous to cause systemic effects. Macroscopy/microscopy Homogeneous grey-white to yellow masses of variable Age size, which are well circumscribed. Certain histological features Sex predict metastasis; for example multiple mitoses and Male only large cell calcifying cell type. Symptoms Seizures: Features that suggest a seizure include wit- nessed convulsions (one or both sides of the body), post- Headache ictal (post-seizure) confusion, drowsiness and headache. Most headaches of the tongue and urinary incontinence (due to re- do not have a serious cause. The history is the most laxation of the bladder sphincters) and other injuries important diagnostic tool. If there As with most types of pain, specific features that must are warning signs prior to the seizure, e. Auras are un- pain is sometimes generalised, but if focal may be de- usual in other types of fits and faints except for in mi- scribed as frontal, occipital, temporal and either unilat- graine which does not result in loss of consciousness or eral or bilateral. Drugs, including recreational drugs and substances Absence seizures (previously called petit mal) are such as alcohol, nicotine and caffeine, can lead to found only in children – the individual appears briefly headaches, either directly or during withdrawal. Sudden onset r Notall seizures are due to epilepsy – intracranial le- Severe pain r sions such as tumours, stroke and haemorrhage, or ex- Associated neurological abnormalities r tracranial causes such as drugs and alcohol withdrawal Impaired consciousness r are important underlying causes. Seizures r Metabolic causes that must be excluded in any sus- Previous head injury or history of fall or trauma r pected fit or faint include hypoglycaemia and hypocal- Signsofsystemic illness caemia. The headache may subside or persist, but is typically at its worst at the dramatic onset. Meningitis A generalised headache classically associated with fever and neck stiffness. Care is required to exclude temporal arteritis in patients over the age of 50 years if a short history. When due to an underlying tumour, the time course may be short, or over months to years depending on the site and any associated complications such as haemorrhage or hydrocephalus. Migraine Classical migraine has an aura (a prodrome of symptoms such as flashing lights) lasting up to an hour preceding the onset of pain, frequently accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The headache is often localised, becoming generalised and persists for several hours. Cervical spondylosis Pain in the suboccipital region associated with head posture and local tenderness relieved by neck support. Temporal arteritis Severe headache and scalp tenderness over the inflamed, palpably thickened superficial temporal arteries with progressive loss of the pulse. In both types sociated with paraesthesia, numbness, cramps and motion, particularly of the head, can exacerbate the sen- tetany. With a chronic lesion such as a tumour, adaptive Hysteria may lead to non-epileptic attacks (pseudo- mechanisms reduce the sensation of dizziness over a pe- seizures) with or without feigned loss of consciousness. The patient will drop to the ground in front of witnesses, withoutsustaininganyinjuryandhaveafluctuatinglevel Labyrinth disorders (peripheral lesions) of consciousness for some time with unusual seizure- Peripherallesionstendtocauseaunidirectionalhorizon- like movements such as pelvic thrusting and forced eye tal nystagmus enhanced by asking the patient to look in closure. This is a diagnosis they tend to veer to one side, but walking is generally of exclusion and should be made with caution. Symptoms last days to weeks and can be is the sensation experienced when getting off a round- reduced with vestibular sedatives (useful only in the about and as part of alcohol intoxication. Positional testing with the Hallpike appears after a few seconds (latency), lasts less than manoeuvre is diagnostic. It tient’seyesarecloselyobservedfornystagmusforupto responds poorly to vestibular sedatives. This test can Central lesions provoke intense nausea, vertigo and even vomiting, Acentral lesion due to disease of the brainstem, cere- particularly in peripheral lesions. For ex- ample, risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, previous history of migraine, demyelination, or the presence of any other neurology. Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs Altered sensation in the limbs is often described as numbness, pins and needles (‘paraesthesiae’), cold or hot sensations. Painful or unpleasant sensations may be felt, such as shooting pains, burning pain, or increased sensitivity to touch (dysaesthesia). There may be a pre- cipitating cause, such as after trauma, or exacerbating features. The distribution of the sensory symptoms, and any associated pain (such as radicular pain, back pain or neck pain) can help to determine the cause. Depending on the level of the lesion the weak- r Can you get up from a chair easily? Signs to use your arms to help you get up from a include: chair or to climb up stairs? Glove and stocking sensory loss in all modalities (pain, temperature, vibration and joint position sense) occurs in peripheral neuropathies. They may have peripheral muscle weakness, which is also bilateral, symmetrical and distal. Bilateral symmetrical loss of all modalities of sensation occurs with a transverse section of the cord. These lesions are characteristically associated with lower motor neurone signs at the level of transection and upper motor neurone signs below the level. There are also ipsilateral upper motor neurone signs below the level of the lesion and lower motor neurone signs at the level of the lesion. Depending on the severity, the weakness may be de- r Anterior horn cell lesions occur as part of motor neu- scribed as a ‘plegia’ = total paralysis, or a ‘paresis’ = rone disease, polio or other viral infections, and can partial paralysis, but these terms are often used inter- affect multiple levels. Common causes are st- will cause weakness and wasting of the small muscles rokes(vascularocclusionorhaemorrhage)andtumours. Ask the patient to say r Decreased power in the distribution of the affected ‘British Constitution’ or ‘West Register Street’. Usually due to a cervical spinal cord lesion, occasionally bilateral cerebral lesions. Hemiplegia Weakness of one half of the body (sometimes including the face) caused be a contralateral cerebral hemisphere lesion, a brainstem lesion or ipsilateral spinal cord lesion (unusual). Paraplegia Affecting both lower limbs, and usually caused by a thoracic or lumbar spinal cord lesion e. Bilateral hemisphere (anterior cerebral artery) lesions can cause this but are rare. Monoplegia Contralateral hemisphere lesion in the motor cortex causing weakness of one limb, usually the arm.

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Animal disease surveillance: a framework for supporting disease detection in public health generic 400mg levitra plus. Identifying a departure from ‘usual’ cheap 400 mg levitra plus with mastercard, ‘natural’ or ‘expected’ levels of mortality or morbidity can be complex and measures need to be put in place to help this process order cheap levitra plus on line. Many of the other sections of this Manual will help in identifying a disease problem [e discount 400 mg levitra plus mastercard. Apparently healthy wildlife: identifying when a problem is emerging relies on a good understanding of what constitutes ‘normal’ mortality and morbidity and good early warning systems (Sally MacKenzie). Capacity requirements for identifying disease problems and informing early warning systems A good understanding of the use of the site by wild and domestic animals throughout the year and an understanding of their biology, abundance, behaviour and movements. A reasonable understanding of the epidemiology of particular diseases and of the stressors and other factors associated with disease outbreaks. Robust disease surveillance (both active and passive) in wildlife and livestock at a site. Ideally this should include regular visual checks of animal groups to screen for unusual behaviour, reduced body condition or productivity of domestic stock, signs of disease and/or mortality. Clear systems for reporting concern to a site manager and from the site manager to the local disease control authority. Use of these systems for immediate reporting of an unusual animal health problem to the local disease control authority. An understanding and capability to provide information and samples from a site to aid disease diagnosis [►Sections 3. A communication network established between surveillance diagnosticians, site managers and disease control authorities both for two-way information flow about surveillance at the site but also from authorities about disease in surrounding areas including neighbouring countries. A communication network between site users in particular farmers and those working and living within wetlands. Awareness amongst wetland stakeholders of disease issues and an understanding of how to respond if there is an apparent problem. Early identification of a disease problem and the ability to respond are dependent on clear and well established channels of communication and formal or informal networks. A problem disease may manifest itself in various subtle ways and a site manager should have available a communication network that allows rapid synthesis of seemingly disparate information. For example, a flow of information should allow a site manager to become aware that there has been a recent incursion of wildlife due to disturbance in surrounding areas, that there has been some loss of productivity in the livestock using the site, or that a higher than expected number of dead or sick wild animals has been observed. Although these may all be entirely unrelated it should prompt the site manager to investigate further. This sort of approach to disease intelligence is key as it supplements disease surveillance data by making full use of additional qualitative information, enhancing awareness of disease related issues that may otherwise remain undetected. Once a disease problem has been identified the response plan can then be put into action. Samples may include carcases, tissues, parasites, whole blood, serum, swabs, environmental material, faeces or ingested food etc. Choosing a specimen The most useful sample to collect is an entire carcase, which is fresh and undamaged by decomposition or scavengers. Such a sample allows a pathologist to carry out gross examination, take a variety of samples and perform a range of tests. It is important to note that carcases of certain species such as fish and aquatic invertebrates, decompose more rapidly than those of birds or mammals and, therefore, examination or chemical-fixation (e. Collection of both healthy and diseased tissue from the same chemically-fixed specimen for comparison can prove invaluable in certain circumstances (e. To help to reduce bias, samples should be representative of the range of species/individuals affected and several specimens of each species or class (e. Personal protective equipment The primary concern when collecting carcases or other diagnostic samples must be personal safety. Many animal diseases are zoonotic and every carcase or other diagnostic sample must be treated as a potential hazard to human health. Gloves (either plastic or disposable), coveralls, rubber boots and potentially masks, should be worn where possible and/or appropriate. If gloves are not available, inverted plastic bags can be used to protect the hands of the person collecting the carcase. Each carcase should be double-bagged whilst using gloves and coveralls and the outside of bags and footwear should be disinfected before leaving the area. Any other specimens should also be double-bagged in plastic before leaving the area. Disposable protective equipment should also be double-bagged and incinerated at high temperature where possible. Tissue collection If submitting an entire carcase for analysis is impractical, it may be necessary to remove appropriate samples from specimens. It is advisable to first consult disease specialists about the method they require for sample preservation. The collection of parasites and their preservation should also be discussed (most parasites can be preserved in 70% ethanol). It is valuable to become familiar with these specialists, their fields of expertise and potentially the sample preservation methods they prefer, before an emergency situation occurs. For most tissue samples the following is appropriate: with a sharp knife or scalpel cut a thin (3-6 mm) section of tissue. If lesions are present include all or part of this affected tissue and adjacent apparently healthy tissue. Take care not to crush the tissue and place in a volume of preservative at least ten times the volume of the tissue to ensure adequate preservation. Supplies Basic supplies and equipment required will vary depending on the species and samples in question. Samples can be stored in appropriately sized plastic bags with a sterile interior as they are easily transported and labelled. Photography Photographing the site and carcases in situ can be extremely helpful to a diagnostician. Photographing any lesions (both external and internal) can provide useful information on their position and appearance. Include a ruler or other readily recognised objects in the photograph to provide scale, and keep a written record of contextual information on each photograph. Labelling For maintaining sample identity, proper labelling of samples is vital, together with preventing loss of readability of labels or their separation from samples. Write directly onto sample tubes or keep labels as close to the specimen as possible. Double labelling is advisable, for example, directly label the sample or sample tube and also the bag in which the sample is placed. This helps prevent confusion and possible errors when multiple samples are received at the same laboratory. The most durable tags are those made of soft metal that can be inscribed with a pencil. Waterproof paper can also be used when dealing with specimens from marine environments. Information marked on carcase tags should include: name, address and telephone number of the person submitting the carcase collection site date reference number whether the animal was found dead or euthanised (plus method of euthanasia) brief summary of clinical signs. Tissue samples taken into plastic bottles should be labelled on the outside of the bottle or a piece of masking tape placed around the tube. The label should include: date type of animal from which the sample came the type of tissue reference number. Do not insert tags into bottles or bags with samples as they may contaminate the sample. Preservation of specimens Chill or freeze all specimens depending on the length of time it will take for them to reach a diagnostic laboratory (understanding that chilled is preferable), unless they are chemically fixed, in which case samples can be kept at ambient temperature. Freezing can damage tissue or kill pathogens and hence reduce options for diagnosis. However, if samples must be held for more than a few days they should be frozen on the day of collection to minimise decomposition. Chapter 2, Field manual of wildlife diseases: general field procedures and diseases of birds. Where samples need to be chilled or frozen an understanding of the concept of the ‘cold-chain’ is required. This refers to the need for samples to remain at the desired temperature and not to experience cycles of change (e.